HIST10  World Civ
Lect. # 19

Mongolians From the Steppes


IDs:
     kumiss
     Chinggis Khan
     tumen
     Qubilai (Kublai) Khan
     kurlitai
     Shangdu
      kamikaze

I. Introduction
         A. The David Vase
                  • Foreign ruler
                  • Foreign materials
                          - porcellana
                          - huihui qing ("Muslim blue")
                          - Blue Willow
                  • Foreign Market
                  • "Chinese"?

I. The Mongols

         A. Life in Mongolia
              1. Horses
                  • Place of pride
                  • Mongol society defined by horses
                  • Mongol horses
                          - Different from other breeds
                          - Raised to survive harsh conditions
                          - Numerous (3 or 4 per person)
                          - Morris Rossabi: "intercontinental ballistic missle of the 13th century
                  and  Sheep!
                          - meat, wool, hides
                          - ~ 50-60% of all animals on steppe

         B. Mongolian Lifestyle
              1. Personal hygiene   
                 • Lack of water
                 •airag/araq (kumiss)

              2. Mongol Bonds:  and

                  nokor - companions
                  anda
- blood brothers
                          -
              3. Cultural confidence


         C. Mongol Recurve Bow
              1. Mongolian "horse" bow
              2. Comparison with English Long Bow

II. The Rise of Chinggis (Genghis)  Khan
         A.  Temüjin (1155-1227)

                  • Early life
                  • Death of father (Yesugai)

         B. 1206 Kurlitai:  Unification of the Mongol Tribes
                  Organization of the Mongol Army
                          - tumen (10,000)
                          - minghan (1,000)
                          - jaqun (100)
                          - arban (10)

         C. Conquests of Chinggis Khan [map]
                1. Capture of Beijing (1215) - Jurchens
                       • Where next: south or west?

                2. Capture of Central Asia and Russia (1219-27)
                         • Central Asia (1219-1220)
                                 - Khwarazm
                                 - Utrar (1219)
                                 - Bukhara and Samarkand (1220)
                                 - Herat (1222) 1.6 million
                                 - Caspian Sea (1223)
 
                3.
Death of Chinggis Khan (1227) [map]

                4.Succession & Division (Khanates)
                        • Batu - The Golden Horde
                        • Chaghadai - Central Asia
                        • Tolui - North China 
                        • Olgotai - Empire of the "Great Khan"

III. Qubilai (Kublai) Khan (r. 1260-1294) & the

         A. Yuan Dynasty
                  Policy of Tolerance & Patronage                   
                  Art & Culture 

                  Infrastructure

         B. Pax Mongolica   

         C. Decline of the Mongol Empire
                  Limits of Expansion: Japan, Java, Burma
                              - kamikaze (divine wind -
神風)
                  Disintegration