HIST 10 World Civ
Lect. # 1

Food & Spices


IDs:
         kê-tsiap
         species/spices
        Silk Roads
         regional self-sufficiency

I. Introduction:  
                  • Hoxne Pepper Pot

II. Ketchup or Catsup?
         A. Global Origins
                          - Unamerican condiment?!
                          - Heinz
                          - 鮭汁guīzhī - kê-tsiap or ke-tchup or kôechiap

                          - Ancient China
                                      + Fermented fish sauce (yulu 鱼露)
                                      + c. 300 BC
                                      + Han Wudi (r. 140-87 BC)
                          - "Tomato" Ketchup?
                                      + First Recipe (c. 1812)
                                      + Fermented vegetables
                          - Western Pennsylvania (19th century)
                                      + Henry J. Heinz
                                      + New recipe: vinegar and pectin
                                      + 57 Varieties?

III. Spices
         A.What is a "spice"?
                          - Roman "spices" (Latin: species)
                                      + Cinnamon, ginger, etc.
                                      + Lions, leopars, silk, ivory, etc.
                                      + Not black pepper

                          - Spices = EXPENSIVE & IMPORTED
                                      + Medieval Cookbooks: half to 3/4 contained spices
                                      + Rotten meat

         B. Spice Routes
                          -
New "spices"?
                                      + Mesopotamia (c. 5,000 years ago)
                                      + Rome (c. 500 BC to 200 AD)
                                      + China - India - Mediterranean World
                                      + Maritime routes
                                      + Overland: "Silk Roads"

         C. Food in the Medieval Period (c. 400 to 1000)
                          - Production & Consumption
                                      + Regional self-sufficiency
                                      + Fields, vegetable gardens, grasslands and woods
                          - Varied Diet
                                      + Peasant = Poor = Destitute?
                                      + MEAT
                                             > Pigs, sheep, goats
                                      + GRAINS
                                             > Roman period = wheat
                                             > Medieval = diversity: rye, oats, barley, millet
                                      + VEGETABLES
                                             > Root vegetables: turnips and potatoes
                                             > Cabbages (kohlrabi, kale, cauliflower)
                                             > Onions, leeks, garlic
                                             > Salad plants
                                      + WINE & WATER

II. Conclusions
                   • Exclusivity of spices
                   • Balanced and Ample
                   • Low life expectancy largely: disease, violence and environment