HIST 10 World Civ
Lect. # 13

Islamic World(s)


IDs:
         Bedouin
         Kaaba
        Umayyad
        
Abbasid
         Bayt al Hikmah
         Harun al-Rashid
         Al-Kwarizm

I . Pre-Islamic Arabia
         A. "Empty Quarter" (Rub'al Khali)

         B. Pre-Islamic Culture
                 1. Bedouin
                       • tribal society
                 2. Bedouin poetry
                           -Sha'ir

                           -Adab
                 3. Animism
                           -jinn (genie)

                

III. The Prophet Muhammad (570-632)

         A. Muhammad
                 • Mecca
                 • Quraysh (Abu Talib)
                 • Kaaba (Mecca)
                 • Khadija

         B. The Recitation
                 • 610 -  Mt. Hira -  The Revelation 
                           - Archangel Gabriel
                           - Qu'ran - "recite" 
                           - 23 years 

                 • Covenant with Arab and Jewish tribes of Medina
                           - New tribe - umma (one community)
                           - Faith over clan
                 • Muhammad dies in 632

IV. The Early Expansion of Islamic Civilization(s) [Map #1 Map #2]
         A. Muhammad's legacy:  Qur'an, Monotheism, and Structure
               1. 'The Rightly Guided Caliphs (khalifa)'
                   • Abu Bakr (r.632-634)
                        - Ridda Wars
                   • Umar (r.634-644)
                   • Uthman (r. 644-656)
                   • Ali (r.656-661)

               2. Reasons for Islam's rapid expansion
                   • Economic need
                   • Internal conflicts in Sassanid and Byzantine Empires
                   • Superior military organization


               3. Umayyad Dynasty - Ninth Caliph - Abd al-Malik
                   •Coin

VI. The Rise of Islamic Civilization(s) [Map #1 Map #2 ]
         A.
Umayyad Dynasty (661-750 CE)
               1. Mu'awiya (Sunni) vs. Ali (Shi'a or Shiites)
               2. Damascus
               3. Triadic class structure:  hurr, mawali,  dhimmis
                   • jizya

         B. Abbasid Dynasty (750-1258 CE)
               1. Political Stability
               2. Translation Movement
               3. Islamic Learning


VII. Bagdad & The Translation Movement


         A.
AbbasidCulture
               1. Baghdad
                   •
Harun al-Rashid (r. 786–809)
                   •  madrasa
                   •  House of Wisdom (Bayt al-Hikmah)

               2. Mathematics 
                   • Al-Kwarizm (algorithm)
                           - Linear and quadratic equations

                           - Geometrical solutions
                           - Tables of sines, tangents and co-tangents
                   • zero and positional notation
                   • algebra (al-jabr)
                   • Interchange getween later court mathematicians
                           - area of a parabola,
                           - developments in mathematics of conic sections and
                           -exploration of spherical geometry
                   •Islamic "patterns" (tiles)


               3. Medicine (obstetrics)
                   •  Al-Razi

               4. Chemistry (
al-Kimiya')
                   •al-kuhl (alcohol )
               5. Trade
                   • Overland Trade
                   • Maritime Trade
                   • Banks

II. Conclusion

         A. Forgotten Inheritors
         B. Forgotten Legacy
         C. Past from the Perspective of Today