HIST 10 World Civilizations to 1500
Lect. #10
 

Roman Heroes: Marvel or DC?

IDs:
     
Pater Familias
     Etruscans
     Virgil
     Aeneid
     pietas
     Colosseum


I. What is a Hero?
        - Bertolt Brecht: "Fortunate is the land that needs no heroes"

        - Marvel or DC Super Heroes?
                    • DC Heroes:
                              - heroes exist to be the exemplars of how great humanity can be when we work together
                              - heroes promote the future of Humanity.
                    • Marvel Heroes:
                              - heroes were often victims of tragedy or exploitation (retake control of their lives)
                              - primary issues are very human, seasoned with a superhuman sauce
                              - Black Panther
                              - Shang Chi

II. Octavian: From Man to Hero 
          A. Rome's Republican Past: myth and reality 
                    • Romulus and Remus
                    • Etruscans 
                    • 218 BC

         B. The Punic Wars 
                    • First Punic War (264-241 BC) 
                    • Second Punic War (218-201 BC) 
                              - Hannibal 
                    • Third Punic War (149-146 BC)

          C. Republic in Crisis
                    • Optimates (aristocrats) and Populares (populists)
                    • Rise of the Generals (100 - 44 BC)

                             + Pompey and imperium
                             + First Triumverate
                             + Crossing of the Rubicon
          D. Roman Society
                    • Pater Familias
                    • Lares & Penates
                    • Pietas
         
          E. Rise of a New Hero: Augustus
                1. Augustus (Octavian) - Head of Augustus
                2. Glorify Rome's past
                3. Aeneid

III. An Empire Worthy of a Hero: The Aeneid   
      A. Virgil (b. 70 BCE - 19 BCE)
                1.Classical poet
                            • Bucolics (Eclogues)
                            • Georgics
                            • Aeneid

      C. Aeneas : Duty or Passion
                1.  Aeneid = defining epic of Rome
                2.  Aeneas                 
                            • Personifying Rome's rise
                            • Aeneas as Rome's Greek origins [map]
                            • From Troy (Greece) to Carthage to Latium (Rome)
                                   - Romantic relationship with Dido Queen of Carthage (Presages Punic Wars)
                            • Latium (Italian Peninsula)
                                   - Turnus (Etruscans)
                                   - Reluctant warrior
                                   - Predestined fate of Aenaes (and Rome)

                5. Aeneas as Hero Archetype
                            • Founder of Rome = Defines Ideal Behavoir
                            • Military valor and prowess
                            • Role as son and father (paterfamilias)
                            • Greece = Arete / Rome = Pietas
                            • Trustyworthy (fides)
                                   - "Carthiginian faith"
                            • Aeneas' right to rule (imperium).
                            • Redefines Greek heroic tradition

III. Gladiators and Chariots
      A. Heroes for the masses
                1. Colosseum (Amphiteatrum Flavium)
                            • c. 70 AD  
                            • 10 years of  construction
                            • Seating (capacity)
                            • Comfort: seats, awning, stench, food, toilets
                2. Chariot Races & Gladiator Fights
                                   - top class athletes
                                   - Fanatical support
                                   - 4 teams (gree, blue, red or white)
                            • Circus Maximus 
                                   - 250,000 spectators
                                   - 650 meters long x 100 meters wide
                                   - 4-7 times around track

                            • Gladiator Fights
                                   - prisoners, slaves, free men
                                   - gladiator schools (ludus)


      B. Gladiators and Charioteers as Roman Heroes        
                1. Characteristics
                   • Virtus
                    • Fortitudo: strength & cunning
                    • Disciplina: discipline
                    • Constantia: tenacity
                    • Patientia: stamina
                    • Contemptus mortis: fearlessness in the face of death
                    • Amor gloriae: desire for fame
                    • Cupido victoriae: will to win