HIST10  World Civ to 1500
Lect. # 7

Old Wine into New Bottles: Wine in the Ancient Greek and Roman World

IDs:
         • symposia (symposion)
         • Andron
         • kottabos
         • posca
         • lora
         • Convivium


I. Introduction
      A. Wine in the Ancient World
              1. Timeline
                        9000 to 4000 BCE - Zagros Mountains (northern Iran)

                        2500 BCE - Grape vines spread to Mediterranean
                        400 BCE - Greek wine trade
                        • 100 BCE - Italian peninsula

              2. Wine making during the "Age of Beer"
                        vitis vinifera sylvestris

                        • Mesopotamia - date palm wine              
3.  Wine drinking
                        c. 1000 BCE - wine becomes "civilized" drink
                        • expensive (elite)

                        • Rise of wine in Ancient Greece (c. 7th century BC)

II. The Wine that Rocked the Cradle (of Western Thought)
        A. Greece
              1. Origins of contemporary Western thought
                        • Pursuit of rational inquiry
                        • symposia (symposion)
                        • wine a sign of civilization

              2. Why Greece
                        • Hesiod's Work & Days
                        • Grape cultivation + specialization
                        Improvements
                             - Wine Press
                             - Vineyards
                             - Profit

              3. Wine in Greek Society
                        • Wine widely available - social distinctions
                        • Individual styles
                                  - Origin
                                  - Age (not exact vintage)
                                  - Amphorae
                        Aeschylus: "wine is the mirror of the mind"

           B. How to drink like a Greek
              1.
Wine drinking
                    -krater
                        • water
                                 - Mixing water and wine
                                 - Macedonians
                                 - Dionysus (Goddess of wine)
                                 - safer? (pathogens)

              2. Symposion
                        All male (except for servers, dancers and musicians)
                        • Akletos - guest
                        • Ettiquette

              3. Andron ("men's room")
                        • murals
                        • floors
                        • couches
                        • men (musicians, slaves, dancers)

               4. Let the drinking begin [Greek Party]
                        • Food and drinking
                        • moderation
                                  - symposiarch

                        • Three toasts
                                  - gods, fallen, Zeus
                        • kottabos


III. From Greek to Rome
        A. Rise of Rome
              1.
out of Greece
              2. Greek influence
              3. Mixed feelings?
              4. Wine heritage?

        B. Rise of Rome (and wine)?
              1. Population (from 100,000 to 1 million)
              2. Class and Wine
                         •
Falernian
                         • Sumptuary Laws (Sumtuariae Leges)

              4. Convivium
                        • Social divisions
                         •
Mulsum, Rosatum (Rosé), posca (soldiers) and lora (slaves)
                        •
Food reflected classes

        IV. Conclusion