HIST10 World Civ
Lect. # 4

Ancient India: Environmental Apocalypse

IDs:
             • Harappa
             • Deforestation
             • Malthusian
             • Laurium

             • Venationes

             • Srivijaya


I. Ancient Indus Civilization (Indus Seal [IMAGE])
       A. Civilization and Progress
                       Indus River Valley (map #1) (map #2)
                       Linear

        B. Indus River Valley Civilization
              1. Geography
                        Map

                        Sind region (modern Pakistan)
                        Hindu Kush and Thar Desert

              2. Biannual Flooding - Spring and Late Summer
                        Hakra (also known as
Ghaggar Hakra)

              3.  Territory
                        Indus valley 1,000 miles end to end
                        500,000 square miles

        B. A Search for Order?   
              1. Harappa and Mohenjo Daro ("Mound of the Dead")

                        • Street drains
                        • Standard weights and measures
                        • Streets of Mohenjodaro
                        • City of wells
                        Civilization: latrines and bathrooms

        C. Writing
              1. Indus (Harappan) Script

        D. Aspects of Harrapan Culture
              1. Social Structure
              2. Conservatism
              3. Trade and Commerce
                        • Persian Gulf and Middle East (Oman)
              4. Significance of Harrapan Culture

       E. Sudden Decline:
             1. Violent End Theory?
              2. Natural Catastrophes & Environmental Degradation:
                        Tsunami
                        Drought

                         Climate
              3. Uncommon ending?
                        Leprosy
                       Infectious Diseases

             4. Controversy Endures . . .

        II. Isolated Incident?

       A. Ancient Greece
              1. Mathusian Pressures

             2. Greek Polis (city-states)
              3. Mining

                       Laurium (Lavrion)
                               - 2000 mine shafts
                                - 87 miles of tunnels
                                - Leaching of chemicals (lead, mercury and arsenic)

       C. Ancient Rome
             1. Mock Hunts (venationes)
                        Augustus: 26 "hunts" with 3500 animals
                        Titus - 9000 animals
                        Trajan - 11000 animals

        D. Srivajaya
              1. Sumatra (Indonesia)
              2. Gharuwood, sandalwood, and pine resin

              3. 20,000 soldiers
                        • ships of 250 to 500 tons measuring 50 meters (165 ft)
                        • Santa Maria = 60 ft


III. Conclusions


The Harappa Bazaar site on the Indus valley offers a stunning array of information in addition to those sites linked above.