HIST10 World Civ
Lect. # 6

Harmonizing China's Past

IDs:
             • Daoism
             • Legalism
             • Oracle Bones
             • Shang

             • Zhou
             • Han Feizi

             • Mandate of Heaven


I. Origins

         A. River Valley Civilization
              1. Geography
                   • Yellow River & Ordos Bend
                   • loess soil
              2. Similarities & Differences with other river valley civilizations 

II. Shang Dynasty (1650-1040 B.C.) (map 1 | map 2)

        A.Oracle Bones ( "Dragon Bones")
             1. Discovered 1899
                  * Wang Yirong
                  * Anyang, Henan Province     
             2. Writing = "culture" (wenhua)
                  * pictographs/ideograms
                  * oracle bones
             3. Shang Bronzes             

      B. Shang Society
             1. Main Characteristics
                   • hierarchical
                   • written language
                   • imperialism and feudalism

              2. Culture
                  • King as intermediary
                   • Royal Ancestor's in Heaven
                   • Maintaining harmony between Heaven and Earth
                   • Human sacrifices
              3. Chinese Zhou Ritual Vessal (gui)

         C. Shang Collapse

III.  Zhou Dynasty (1127-256) [map]

        A. Origins
                   • Shang defeat in 1040 B.C.
                   • New Capital = Chang'an (Xi'an)
        B. Mandate of Heaven (tianming)
                   • Harmony and prosperity must be maintained
                          + Chinese Bronze Bell 
                   • Rule benevolently
                   • Lead a just and moral life 
        C. Imperialistic & Feudalistic
                   • fiefdoms
                   • Shi & former Shang royalty

IV. Warring States Period (475-221 BC)

         A. Hundred Schools of Thought
         B. Confucianism
              • Kong Fuzi (Confucius)
              • shi (ideal gentlemen)
              • Five Relationships
                    Ruler-subject
                    Father-son
                    Elder brother - Younger Brother
                    Husband - Wife
                    Elder Friend - Younger Friend


         C. Daoism
              • the "Dao"
              • wu-wei (inaction)

          D. Legalism
              • Han Feizi

V. Qin China [map](221 BC)
        A. First Emperor (huangdi)
         B. Unification
             • Language
              • Roads་& Walls

                         + Great Wall Myth
              • Money
              • Philosophy
              • People

        C. Death of First Emperor (September 210 BC)