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Yoruba

  1. About Yoruba
  2. Fonts for Dotted Letters
  3. Windoows Alt Codes and Keyboard Utilities
  4. Macintosh Extended Keyboard Accent Codes
  5. Browser Setup for Internet
  6. HTML Entity Codes
    1. Language Codes: yo

About Yoruba

Yoruba is spoken in Nigeria, Benin and elsewhere.

Yoruba Dotted Vowels

Yoruba is written in the Roman alphabet but includes dotted vowels, and so requires special font keyboard support separate from languages like Spanish and French.

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Fonts for Dotted Letters

The following fonts include characters for dotted letters found in Yoruba spelling.

Phonetics Fonts

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Windows Accent Codes & Utilities

Windows Freeware Yoruba Keyboard Utility

Free keyeboard utilites and fonts are available from

Read installation instructions for details. For best results, use fonts which support combining diacritics such as Arial Unicode MS.

Windows Vista

Yoruba support has also been expanded in Windows Vista, but it does not include a Yoruba keyboard in the English version.

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Macintosh Extended Keyboard Accent Codes

For dotted vowels, you can switch to the Extended Roman keyboard (10.2) or the U.S. Extended keyboard (10.3) then use the following codes:

Mac Extended Keyboard Codes
ACCENT SAMPLE TEMPLATE
Dot Below ọ,Ọ

Option+X, V

Acute Above ó,Ó Option+X, V
Grave Above ò,Ò Option+`, V
Acute Above with Dot Below ọ́,Ọ́́ Option+X, V then Shift+Option+E
Grave Above with Dot Below ọ̀,Ọ̀ Option+X, V then Shift+Option+`

For instance, to type ọ́ you would type the code for dotted lowercase O (Option+X then O), then add the combining acute accent with Shift+Option+E. Note that vowels with accents above and below use a "combining" diacritic. Therefore, placement on certain vowels may not be optimal.

For print work, there are also a number of freeware and shareware phonetics and classics fonts.  You can check the Summer Institute for Linguistics Fonts in Cyberspace for more details.

For the Web, you can use the Unicode numeric codes listed below.

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Browser Setup

Recommended Browsers

For dotted consonants, the following browsers have the most consistent results.

Note on Internet Explorer

Internet Explorer for Windows may not display implosive consonants by default. Users who prefer Internet Explorer for Windows should set the Latin font to Arial Unicode MS or some other Unicode script with phonetic symbol support.

Internet Explorer for Macintosh does not support implosive consonant symbols.

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HTML Accent Codes

Yoruba Encoding and Language Tags

These are the codes which allow browsers and screen readers to process data as the appropriate language. All letters in codes are lower case.

See Using Encoding and Language Codes for more information on the meaning and implementation of these codes.

HTML Entity Codes

The tables for the Yoruba accents are divided into codes for grave and acute tone marks for plain vowels and codes dotted vowels and dotted s.

Plain Vowels

Use these codes to input accented letters in HTML. For instance, if you want to type Yorùbá you would type Yórùba.

Accents for Plain (Dotless) Vowels
Accent A E I O U
Grave
&Vgrave;

(Cap)
À
À
È
È
Ì
Ì
Ò
Ò
Ù
Ù
Grave (Lower) à
à
è
è
ì
&igrave
ò
ò
ù
ù
Acute
&Vacute;

(Cap)
Á
Á
É
É
Í
Í
Ó
Ó
Ú
Ú
Acute (Lower) á
á
é
é
í
í
ó
ó
ú
ú

 

Dotted Letters

Below are the codes for dotted letters including dotted vowels with tone marks. Note that dotted vowels with accents requires two codes - the one for the dotted vowels and one for a combining accent mark. For instance, if you wanted to type ọ̀rọ̀ you would type ọ̀rọ̀.

Yoruba HTML Entity Codes

Capitals
Let Entity Codes
Ẹ
Capital E Dot
Ọ
Capital O Dot
Ṣ
Capital S Dot
Ẹ̀ Ẹ̀
Capital E Dot Grave
Ọ̀ Ọ̀
Capital O Dot Grave
Ẹ́ Ẹ́(
Capital E Dot Acute
Ọ́ Ọ́
Capital O Dot Acute
Lowercase
Let Entity Codes
ẹ
Lower E Dot
ọ
Lower O Dot
ṣ
Lower S Dot
ẹ̀ ẹ̀
Lower E Dot Grave)
ọ̀ ọ̀
Lower O Dot Grave
ẹ́ ẹ́
Lower E Dot Acute
ọ́ ọ́
Lower O Dot Acute)
 

Using Encoding and Language Codes

Computers process text by assuming a certain encoding or a system of matching electronic data with visual text characters. Whenever you develop a Web site you need to make sure the proper encoding is specified in the header tags; otherwise the browser may default to U.S. settings and not display the text properly.

To declare an encoding, insert or inspect the following meta-tag at the top of your HTML file, then replace "???" with one of the encoding codes listed above. If you are not sure, use utf-8 as the encoding.

Generic Encoding Template

<head>
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=??? ">
...
<head>

Declare Unicode

<head>
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8 ">
...
<head>

XHTML

The final close slash must be included after the final quote mark in the encoding header tag if you are using XHTML

Declare Unicode in XHTML

<head>
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" />
...
<head>

No Encoding Declared

If no encoding is declared, then the browser uses the default setting, which in the U.S. is typically Latin-1. Some display errors may occur.

Language Tags

Language tags are also suggested so that search engines and screen readers parse the language of a page. These are metadata tags which indicate the language of a page, not devices to trigger translation. Visit the Language Tag page to view information on where to insert it.

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Last Modified: Friday, 29-Jul-2016 13:40:17 EDT