Elizabeth J. Pyatt

210 Rider II,
Education Technology Services, a unit of I.T.S
ejp10@psu.edu

My Life as a Penn State Instruction Designer

Got Unicode?
Runes (ᚠᚢᚦᚨᚱᚲ) on the Web

So you want to put Runes on the Web in Unicode? Here's what you need to know.

Rune Test

If you see a question mark or a bunch of squares below, then you need to install a rune font.

ᛖᛚᛁᛊᚢᛒᛖᚦ ᚹᚱᚨᛖᛏ ᚱᚢᚾᚨ "ELISABEÞ WRAET RUNA"

ᚠᚢᚦᚨᚱᚲ "FUÞARK" (the first six runic letters)

What are Runes?

Runes (or ᚠᚢᚦᚨᚱᚲ "Futhark") are a set of alphabets developed by the Germanic tribes. The origins are a little murky (and much debated), but the letters appear to borrow from both the Roman alphabet and the Greek alphabet.

The letters all have names like thorn (þ) for "th" /θ/ and isaz () 'ice' for /i/. Ancient Germanic did use them for "magical" purposes but they also used it for everday writing. For English, it's actually a little more efficient because it has single letters like thorn (þ) for sounds that need to be written with two letters in the modern Roman alphabet.

Links

Getting Them on the Web

Step 1: Make sure you have a Runic font

Runes are important for linguists studying ancient Germanic and Old English texts and Unicode Runes will allow them to create and share standardized archives. So there are actually a lot of good fonts available.

Step 2: Tell Visitors Where to Get a Font

Just like the list above.

Step 3: Input the Runes

Most people rarely have long runic texts, so you can either

Step 4: Make sure the utf-8 encoding tag is included

Your file should be ready to post. But expect a little bit of debugging to occur.

Example Code

Here are two ways to include ᚠᚢᚦᚨᚱᚲ in a Unicode Web page.

As Is

I was able to quickly insert these letters into Dreamweaver via the Mac Character Palette.

HTML Code

<h2> ᚠᚢᚦᚨᚱᚲ</h2>

Result

ᚠᚢᚦᚨᚱᚲ

With Numeric Codes

You can also translates the characters as numeric entity codes, but unless your system is automated, you will need to look up each character number.

HTML Code

<h2>&#5792;&#5794;&#5798;&#5800;&#5809;&#5810;</h2>

Result

ᚠᚢᚦᚨᚱᚲ

 

Unicode Runic Codes

Note that Unicode numbers are assigned in Runic alphabetic order (F,U,Þ...), but this table is sorted roughtly in Roman alphabet order (A,B.C...). Hence numbers are out of order.

There were actually several varieties of Runic alphabets (including Common Germanic, Old English and Old Norse/Scandinavian), each with their own forms and pronunciation. Thus the Unicode table includes multiple variants for each letter.

Character Name Glyph Name Entity Hex Entity
RUNIC LETTER AC A &#5802;
RUNIC LETTER AESC&#5803;
RUNIC LETTER ALGIZ EOLHX&#5833;
RUNIC LETTER ANSUZ A&#5800;
RUNIC LETTER BERKANAN BEORC BJARKAN B&#5842;
RUNIC LETTER C&#5837;
RUNIC LETTER CALC&#5859;
RUNIC LETTER CEALC&#5860;
RUNIC LETTER CEN&#5811;
RUNIC LETTER CWEORTH&#5858;
RUNIC LETTER D&#5841;
RUNIC LETTER DAGAZ DAEG D&#5854;
RUNIC LETTER DOTTED-L&#5851;
RUNIC LETTER DOTTED-N&#5824;
RUNIC LETTER DOTTED-P&#5844;
RUNIC LETTER E&#5826;
RUNIC LETTER EAR&#5856;
RUNIC LETTER EHWAZ EH E&#5846;
RUNIC LETTER ENG&#5814;
RUNIC LETTER ETH&#5799;
RUNIC LETTER FEHU FEOH FE F&#5792;
RUNIC LETTER G&#5813;
RUNIC LETTER GAR&#5816;
RUNIC LETTER GEBO GYFU G&#5815;
RUNIC LETTER GER&#5828;
RUNIC LETTER HAEGL H&#5819;
RUNIC LETTER HAGLAZ H&#5818;
RUNIC LETTER ICELANDIC-YR&#5864;
RUNIC LETTER ING&#5853;
RUNIC LETTER INGWAZ&#5852;
RUNIC LETTER IOR&#5857;
RUNIC LETTER ISAZ IS ISS I&#5825;
RUNIC LETTER IWAZ EOH&#5831;
RUNIC LETTER JERAN J&#5827;
RUNIC LETTER KAUN K&#5812;
RUNIC LETTER KAUNA&#5810;
RUNIC LETTER LAUKAZ LAGU LOGR L&#5850;
RUNIC LETTER LONG-BRANCH-AR AE&#5829;
RUNIC LETTER LONG-BRANCH-HAGALL H&#5820;
RUNIC LETTER LONG-BRANCH-MADR M&#5848;
RUNIC LETTER LONG-BRANCH-OSS O&#5804;
RUNIC LETTER LONG-BRANCH-YR&#5862;
RUNIC LETTER MANNAZ MAN M&#5847;
RUNIC LETTER NAUDIZ NYD NAUD N&#5822;
RUNIC LETTER O&#5806;
RUNIC LETTER OE&#5807;
RUNIC LETTER ON&#5808;
RUNIC LETTER OPEN-P&#5845;
RUNIC LETTER OS O&#5801;
RUNIC LETTER OTHALAN ETHEL O&#5855;
RUNIC LETTER PERTHO PEORTH P&#5832;
RUNIC LETTER Q&#5865;
RUNIC LETTER RAIDO RAD REID R&#5809;
RUNIC LETTER SHORT-TWIG-AR A&#5830;
RUNIC LETTER SHORT-TWIG-BJARKAN B&#5843;
RUNIC LETTER SHORT-TWIG-HAGALL H&#5821;
RUNIC LETTER SHORT-TWIG-MADR M&#5849;
RUNIC LETTER SHORT-TWIG-NAUD N&#5823;
RUNIC LETTER SHORT-TWIG-OSS O&#5805;
RUNIC LETTER SHORT-TWIG-SOL S&#5836;
RUNIC LETTER SHORT-TWIG-TYR T&#5840;
RUNIC LETTER SHORT-TWIG-YR&#5863;
RUNIC LETTER SIGEL LONG-BRANCH-SOL S&#5835;
RUNIC LETTER SOWILO S&#5834;
RUNIC LETTER STAN&#5861;
RUNIC LETTER THURISAZ THURS THORN&#5798;
RUNIC LETTER TIWAZ TIR TYR T&#5839;
RUNIC LETTER URUZ UR U&#5794;
RUNIC LETTER V&#5793;
RUNIC LETTER W&#5797;
RUNIC LETTER WUNJO WYNN W&#5817;
RUNIC LETTER X&#5866;
RUNIC LETTER Y&#5796;
RUNIC LETTER YR&#5795;
RUNIC LETTER Z&#5838;
RUNIC MULTIPLE PUNCTUATION&#5868;
RUNIC SINGLE PUNCTUATION&#5867;
RUNIC ARLAUG SYMBOL (golden number 17)&#5870;
RUNIC TVIMADUR SYMBOL (golden number 18)&#5871;
RUNIC BELGTHOR SYMBOL (golden number 19)&#5872;
RUNIC CROSS PUNCTUATION&#5869;
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