Authentic Games & PBL: March 2011 Archives

Puzzle Theory

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Last week at the Gaming Brownbag, I gave a PuzzleTheory.pptx for education (a completely made up name) which is an exploration of how the principles of entertainment puzzles (Sudoku, solitaire, word games, math and logic games, etc) can be implemented in different courses, specifically those which assign lots of "problem sets" as homework.

I got interested in puzzles partly because I like them, but also because they structurally overlap with exercises I give out as homework, yet are actually considered fun. A question I have is what are the makers of Soduko and online solitaire doing that we're not to make these addictive.

Puzzles/Problem Sets vs. Design vs. Games

When considering learning objectives, it's important to consider the properties of entertainment puzzles versus a game or a "design". Puzzles are game-like in that there are formal rules, but different in that there is generally a limited solution set (sometimes just one). Also, games have competitors and generally have a winner, but a puzzle can be a solo activity.

Another distinction is design versus puzzles. There are lots of open-ended problems which can be solved with any number of creative solutions from architectural problems (environmentally friendly yet tasteful) to social engineering (getting people to eat vegetables) to optimization. You can (and should) build learning activities around these design issues, but I also think that puzzles with limited solutions are also valid.

Puzzles in Real Life

There are actually lots of puzzles in real life with few solutions....but it's not the case that we can find an answer (yet). Some recent examples

  • What do those weird Egyptian heiroglyphic symbols mean? (solved!)
  • Which crazy Unicode font is making Elizabeth's Photoshop crash? (unsolved)
  • Why does the patient sufffer back pain?
  • How many people are employeed by Penn State in each county?
  • Where do you plug things in to set up Adobe Connect audio?
  • Which route to a particular Washington DC suburb is the fastest?

Entertainment Puzzles vs. Problem Sets

In the discussion we had, we compared puzzles vs. problem sets. One issue we discussed was whether "bells and whistles" would add to the experience. Online puzzles generally have interesting graphics/sound effects (e.g. Mahjong for iPad) not found in problem sets.

Another feature of both modern puzzles and games is a wacky sense of humor. Each round of the iPad game Angry Birds presents the ballistic challenge of efficiently destroying a structure with a missile - yet few engineering classes will ask you how to launch an avian projectile to destroy building built by villainous pork.

A third issue was context - why should students care about the problem? In engineering, solving a problem correctly could prevent a major disaster. In linguistics or foreign language, it might mean being able to buy some groceries. Yet most problem sets present exercises out of context. It can be hard to write good word problems, but maybe we need some humor too!

Finally, a lesson I have to keep re-learning is to NOT make your problem sets too difficult. Addictive puzzles are those which are tricky, but not impossible to solve. A successful series of puzzles can you ramp you up from simple to easy so that you learn the easy puzzles quickly, then work your way towards more challenging puzzles. But once a puzzle becomes too hard, players quit.

As a general note, a puzzle that is fun or challenging for an instructor will likely be too hard for students, especially in intro courses. The students will probably be more frustrated by a challenge rather than being inspired by it (unless they happen to "get it").

Learning Through Failure

I think the most important insight I had was that part of solving a puzzle is going through a series of repeated failures until you get it right. That is, puzzles are somewhat low-stakes where you are rewarded more making an effort rather than perfection. Problem sets, on the other hand...generally high stakes.

Entertainment Puzzles Problem Sets
  • Fun!
  • Can reset/do over
  • Can look at answer key/cheat code
  • Can ask for help
  • OK to fail multiple timnes before solving
  • Not Fun ;(
  • No do over
  • No answer key (until grading)
  • No outside help
  • Turn in once and hope for the best

This does make me think about how traditional education works. In the worst case scenario, we may show simple problems, but then assign students for homework (or show hard problems in class then assign very easy problems in homework to bewildered students).

What we rarely do is ask students to re-do a problem again so that they can learn from it. We just hope our answer key is clear enough for them to understand what went wrong. Nor do we ask students to work through a simple problem on their own, which could allow students to figure out the strategies. It is no wonder that they are passively waiting for us to tell them what to do - it's how instructors roll.

I know I am re-inventing problem based learning (PBL), but puzzles are a way to show how it can work successfully, when you start tossing birds at pigs.

Oregon Trail on the iPad

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One of the games I purchased for the iPad was Oregon Trail, a historical adventure game based on traveling west on the Oregon Trail. I was intrigued by this game because this is one of the few games based on an educational concept that was actually considered fun outside the classroom.

Game Play

For those who haven't played Oregon Trail before, the game is built around a quest to move your family West on the Oregon Trail before time and supplies run out and with as many survivors as possible.

You begin in Missouri with a wagon and some options to gear up your wagon and stock it with food, guns, bullets and clothing. You then head to different points on the trail. On the trail (at least in the iPhone version), you are given different challenges in terms of navigating barriers (e.g. rivers) and hunting food on the trail (this will be VERY important as it turns out). You also have to navigate different weather and hope no one gets sick or injured (beware the giant eagle). If that happens you have to choose whether to spend time healing, spend money on medicines or use some other supplies.

As with other adventures, you learn to juggle resources which is what the actual pioneers did. You also encounter historical figures (and even run optional errands for them such as delivering letters to the next town). This game effectively teaches you the hazards of the West and the benefits of cooperation as well as a good aim.

Design Lessons

What design lessons can instructional designers learn? I think most would agree that the lesson can be summed up as making sure a game "doesn't shove educational crap down your throat." BUT WHAT DOES THAT MEAN?

First, the game mood is a little on the silly side. The graphics were originally primitive, but even once better technology was available, the characters and setting were definitely cartoonish (I always loved Ma's giant bonnet and Pa's bushy mustache). Death is a common occurrence in this game, but is treated humorously. In many versions, kids get to write their own tombstones before getting back on the wagon.

The second part of the "no educational crap" is that there extended text explaining the hazards of the trail. You get the dysentery, then you decide how to handle it. The same is true for broken axles, sick oxen or low food supplies. It IS learning by doing. On a side note, the hazards are not rigorously described. It's not important to know the symptoms of dysentary to appreciate that someone is sick. Similarly, we don't need to know exactly which tribe we're encountering to appreciate the benefits of being nice to the local population. This means (sniff) eliminating real historical. I admit that this is a challenge for me, but it is just a game....

A third lesson is that the game is embedded in a personalized narrative because the game lets you experience the trail for yourself. Also, it's kind of a challenge. I was able to navigate most of the challenges, but that eagle is literally a killer. How to handle that sucker? Replay or cheat code seems to be the answer.

A final lesson to consider is that the game fits the learning objectives. The game does not really teach facts about the trail (e.g. specific locations, people, etc). You may learn some of this by playing frequently, but it's not critical information. The actual objectives are to understand the challenges of navigating the trail, and the game does this very well. In other words, I am thinking games are generally more about learning skills rather than facts.

Some Caveats

A discussion that comes up in educational gaming is how much gaming can replace traditional education. I would definitely agree that a well-constructed game can teach things that a lecture cannot.

But I also feel that if a game is used in the classroom, then there should be a debriefing session. Many times lessons are so well learned, that students don't even realize what they've learned until they reflect upon it.

Another concept I struggle with is how to incorporate a game with the "facts" valued by traditional education. One school of thought is to forget facts and focus on higher order knowledge, but I think that's too simplistic. Analysis often relies on someone recalling the right facts (in fact I always felt that Batman is probably a Trivia Pursuit whiz in disguise).

Games traditionally present this information needed as tutorials and references or in the framework of the plot, and I think that would work here too. But I do think it's important to remember that some of this verbal knowledge should have a place in a course, even if it's not as large as it traditionally has been.