Smart Quotes Entity Codes


I'm on the warpath (again) about improperly encoded Smart Quotes which appear as mystery boxes on my Mac/Safari. See example below.

Screen capture of page with smart quotes replaced with boxes

Web Site with Improperly Encoded Quotes as Seen on Safari
For the record, the HTML Entity Codes are as follows.
Smart Quotes and Hypens
“ (left curly quote)
‘ (left single curly quote)
” (right curly quote)
’ (right single curly quote)
– (en dash)
— (em dash)

And for those of you who may encounter non-English text, these quote marks are also in use.

European Quote Marks
« « (left angle)
» » (right angle)
‹ (left single angle)
› (right single angle)
„ (bottom quote)
‚ (single bottom quote)

About The Blog

I am a Penn State technology specialist with a degree in linguistics and have maintained the Penn State Computing with Accents page since 2000.

See Elizabeth Pyatt's Homepage ( for a profile.


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