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Synthetic Organs


Eventually, it may be possible to replace every organ within the body with a synthetic (or artificial) organ for long-term implantation.  Currently, synthetic organs are proving themselves to be very advantageous as a bridge to transplantation for those patients that experience a long wait before suitable organs become available.  But as the need for organs for transplantation continues to outpace the availability of organs, the development of synthetic organs for long-term implantation continues to push the limits of science and resulting in numerous advancements in the area.  Often these advancements are applied to the research of several different organs so there is considerable overlap in the research community.  The links listed below are meant to provide some good starting points for general information as well as more specific information for some of the organs currently being studied, including Blood Vessels (Grafts), Artificial Blood, Bone, Ear (Cochlear Implant), Eyes, Heart, Kidneys, Liver, Lungs, Muscles, Pancreas, Reproductive Organs, and Skin.

One area of synthetic organs that had early success was blood grafts.  The first choice for replacement is typically the autogenous saphenous vein (ASV), but when it's unavailable for transplant an artificial blood vessel maybe used as a graft.  Currently, artificial blood vessels are limited to large diameter vessel applications.  However, current research is directed to finding suitable grafting methods for small and medium diameter blood vessels.  Artificial blood vessels include: treated natural tissue, laboratory-engineered tissue, and synthetic polymer fabrics. Dacron and Teflon are the most commonly used polymers.  The following link contains a description of William J. von Liebig's 1961 first patented seamless synthetic vascular graft.
http://www.njinvent.njit.edu/1995/special_citations_1995/william_j._von_liebig.htm


General Information

http://cape.uwaterloo.ca/che100projects/organs/
An excellent general overview with short abstracts on each of the following topics: eyes, heart, kidney, larynx, muscles, and skin. It also has a brief history of artificial organ technology.

http://www.mirm.pitt.edu/programs/medical_devices/index.htm
"To realize the vast potential of tissue engineering and other techniques aimed at repairing damaged or diseased tissues and organs, the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine and University of Pittsburgh Medical Center have established the McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine. The McGowan Institute serves as a single base of operations for the university's leading scientists and clinical faculty working to develop tissue engineering, cellular therapies, biosurgery and artificial and biohybrid organ devices."  This Institute includes what was known as The McGowan Center for Artificial Organ Development and continues to make advancements in research areas including artificial heart, artificial lung, liver, kidneys, pancreas and blood.

http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/prosthesis/stein/organs.html
A nice page that gives you a breif histrory and reasoning for some artificial organs; cardiovascular, kidney, and cells.

http://echo.gmu.edu/bionics/exhibits.htm
Artificial Organ History: A Selective Timeline

http://www.anti-aging-guide.com/65organs.php
Presents scientific reports on use of various models of implanted artificial heart, and related techniques.

http://www.devicelink.com/mddi/archive/98/05/018.html
A MD&DI May 1998 Column, R&D HORIZONS, Artificial Organs Produce Genuine Benefits -- Current research encompasses almost every conceivable organ system and function written by Gary Woo. This is a very good article about artificial liver, blood, lungs, skin, pancreas, and tissue engineering.

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 Organizations

http://www.asaio.com/
American Society for Artificial Internal Organs. 

http://www.esao.org/
European Society for Artificial Organs

http://www.jsao.org/
Japanese Society for Artificial Organs. 

http://www.coursecalendar.mcgill.ca/
health2005-06/Health%20Sciences-5-38.html

Artificial Cells & Organs Research Center.  Conecting website http://www.medicine.mcgill.ca/artcell/ which provides some nice links for good general information on artificial blood substitutes and artificial cells.

http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/journal.asp?ref=0160-564X&site=1
Artificial Organs.  Official journal of the International Society for Artificial Organs.

http://www.asaiojournal.com/
ASAIO Journal.  Official journal of the American Society for Artificial Organs.

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Blood Vessels

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/2005108.stm
BBC News World Edition - Artificial blood vessel advance.

http://www.livescience.com/humanbiology/060619_synthetic_arteries.html
Synthetic Blood Vessels Not Such a Stretch.

http://www.yourheartmadesimple.com/chapters/ch3/page1.cfm
Deseases of the blood vessels of the heart.

http://www.businessregiongoteborg.com/newsevents/
goteborgregionbusinessnews/5.5b1a655e1072ccbf2dd800019838.html

Scientists Build Artificial Blood Vessels from Patient Cells

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Artificial Blood

http://www.madehow.com/Volume-5/Artificial-Blood.htm
A nice website that provides a good background for Artifical Blood including history, design, raw materials, and manugacturing.

http://www.dcmsonline.org/jax-medicine/1998journals/
december98/artificialblood.htm

Artificial Blood: What Is It?  Will I Use It?

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Artificial_blood
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  Great site with alot of background information and discribes the different types of blood substitutes.

http://www.med.unipi.it/patchir/bloodl/bmr/artif.htm#s1
Sites of Artificial Blood.  This site provides links with information on the commerial produsts available according to catagory.  Perfluorocarbons, artificial hemoglobin, platelet substitutes, and plasma substitutes.

http://medind.nic.in/maa/t03/i1/maat03i1p45.pdf
A review article discussing artificial blood.  Goes into the advantages and some disadvantages of the different types of artificial blood.

http://www.baylorhealth.edu/proceedings/14_2/14_2_kresie.html
An article titled "Artificial blood: an update on current red cell and platelet substitutes."

The links listed below are for online news articles covering testing of articial blood in cities across the country.
http://abcnews.go.com/WNT/story?id=2166058&page=1
http://www.cnn.com/2004/HEALTH/02/20/blood.substitute.ap/
http://blogs.abcnews.com/theblotter/2006/07/artifical_blood.html
http://www.abc4.com/local_news/abc4_health/story.aspx?content_id=
76F3A8BE-CDA0-4121-B3A3-607ECC5EB247

http://www.tandf.co.uk/journals/titles/10731199.asp
"Artificial Cells, Blood Substitutes, and Immobilization." An International Journal.

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Bone

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Ear (Cochlear Implant)

http://www.beyonddiscovery.org/content/view.article.asp?a=252
Sound from Silence: The Development of Cochlear Implants.  Cochlear implant history and general information

http://www.medoto.unimelb.edu.au/bei/AboutHistory.html
The Bionic Ear Institute.  The History of the Australian Bionic Ear.

http://www.bionicear.org/bei/index2.html
Bionic Ear Institute's research in cochlear implants and deafness

http://www.medschool.lsuhsc.edu/otorhinolaryngology/cochlear_implant.asp
Louisiana State University Medical Center Cochlear Implant Program

http://www.utdallas.edu/~loizou/cimplants/
University of Texas at Dallas cochlear implant laboratory research information

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Eyes

http://www.ioi.com/
Bio-eye hydroxyapatite (HA) Ocular Implants.

http://www.artificialeye.net
A website that contains in-depth information about custom made ocular prostheses (artificial eyes), and a directory of ocularists from around the world that provide artificial eye fitting services.

http://www.latc.com/1998/08/10/special_sect/yhealth3.html
Discusses multifocal lens implants as option for cataract patients.

http://www.operaid.com/eng/prodln/prodln.htm
"OPHTEC a reliable partner in the Ophthalmic Industry"  OPHTEC offers a wide range of high quality products meant for the treatment of Cataract, Refractive and Trauma surgery. Our Products are subject to a constant process of adjustment and improvement resulting in proven product leadership in several segments of the Ophthalmic surgery.

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Heart

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Kidneys

http://renux.dmed.ed.ac.uk/edren/Unitbits/historyweb/HDWorld.html
"The early development of dialysis and transplantation."
http://www.stanford.edu/dept/HPS/transplant/html/history.html
"Kidney Transplantation:  Past, Present, and Future."

http://cape.uwaterloo.ca/che100projects/organs/Kidney/kidney.htm#B
Artificial kidney and kidney transplant information

http://nephron.com/dialysishg.html
Dialysis Patient's Health Guide

http://www.medicineatmichigan.org/magazine/2000/summer/
huron/10huron.asp

University of Michigan's bio-artificial kidney in thier Medicine at Michigan publication.

http://www.baxter.com/patients/kidney_disease/index.html
Baxter company information on kidney disease, peritoneal dialysis, hemodialysis, and kidney transplantation

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Liver

http://biomed.brown.edu/Faculty/J/jauregui.html
"The liver assist program at RIH, Department of Pathology, has developed a hepatocyte seeded extracorporeal liver assist device (LAD), now in medical trials at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles, CA under Grace Biomedical supervision." 

http://www.centerspan.org/tnn/99010103.htm
"The University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC) has begun a phase I clinical trial to test a bioartificial liver assist system designed by Excorp Medical of Minnesota..... Researchers plan to study 15 patients with encephalopathy and compare their outcomes with those of similar patients who have received standard intensive care treatment." 

http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/420583
"Bioarticial Liver Devices:  Bridging to Transplantation and Recovery"  An article that provides an overview and lists different types of devices.

Proceedings of an international symposium held in Celle, Germany,June2-4, 1980.Title: Artificial liver support, edited by G. Brunner and F.W. Schmidt. Published: Berlin; new york: Spriner-Verlag, 1981.

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Lungs

http://www.med.umich.edu/ecmo/
An excellent site on extracorporeal life support.

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Muscles

http://cape.uwaterloo.ca/che100projects/organs/Muscles/muscle.htm
Mini-report on recent research into polymer based artificial muscles. Includes other references.

http://brl.ee.washington.edu/Research_Past/Biologically_Based/
Device_01_McKibben/Mckibben.html
BioRobotics Laboratory at University of Washington.  Information on the McKibben Artificial Muscle, which is a pneumatic actuator that exhibits many of the properties found in real muscle. Includes information on fatigue properties and performance characteristics.

http://www.advancedprosthetichand.com/24702/
28501.html?*session*id*key*=*session*id*val*

Advanced Prosthetic Hand Project - Artificial Muscles

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Pancreas

http://www.mirm.pitt.edu/programs/medical_devices/index.htm
"To realize the vast potential of tissue engineering and other techniques aimed at repairing damaged or diseased tissues and organs, the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine and University of Pittsburgh Medical Center have established the McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine. The McGowan Institute serves as a single base of operations for the university's leading scientists and clinical faculty working to develop tissue engineering, cellular therapies, biosurgery and artificial and biohybrid organ devices."  This Institute includes what was known as The McGowan Center for Artificial Organ Development and continues to make advancements in research areas including artificial heart, artificial lung, liver, kidneys, pancreas and blood.   Some specifics advancemtns in the area of artificial pancreas includes implantable glucose sensors.

http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/dome/0211/news_report1.cfm
http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/hmn/F02/feature.html
http://www.hopkinschildrens.org/specialties/categorypages/diabetes_guide.pdf
John Hopkins University - These are links to two articles from JHU publications and a diabetes guild.  Provide a nice introdcution to this topic.

Naylor, Jennifer S, et al. "Automated control issues in the development of an artificial pancreas." PROC AM CONTROL CONF 1995 vol. 1: 771-775.

Tortolano, F. W. "Plastic pancreas: new hope for deabetics." Design News. 1995, June 12. vol. 50(51): 86-88.

Tziampazis, Evangelos; Sambanis, Athanassios. "Tissue engineering of a bioartificial pancreas: modeling the cell environment and device function." Biotechnology Progress. 1995, Mar/Apr. vol. 11:115-126.

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Reproductive Organs

http://www.fda.gov/cdrh/mda/docs/p020003.html
FDA new device approval for a Mentor Saline-Filled Testicular Prosthesis -P020003

http://www.fda.gov/cdrh/breastimplants/
FDA's Breast Implant Homepage.

http://www.implantforum.com/cancer.html
Personal experiences of women with breast cancer andhow breast implants made a difference.

http://www.emedicine.com/radio/topic112.htm
eMedicine - Breast Implant Rupture: Article by Richard L Hallett, MD.  Contains alot of links to other sites.

http://tcrc.acor.org/implants.html
The Testicular Cancer Resource Center has a site for Testicular Implants and gives you links to other sites and also has some comments/thoughts from peopel who have received implants.

http://www.seekwellness.com/
http://www.seekwellness.com/mensexuality/penimpl.htm
Dr. Chris Steidle, Northeast Indiana University, posts a Men's Sexulity Center and a Women's Sexuality Center.  Including a discussion of penile prostheses application and function.

http://www.webmd.com/hw/impotence/hw111556.asp
WebMD provides a nice Surgery Overview.

http://www.medicinenet.com/penile_implants/article.htm
Explains how penite implants work, and their effectiveness in treating erectile dysfuction.

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Skin

http://cape.uwaterloo.ca/che100projects/organs/Skin/skin.htm
This site discusses artificial cartilage, skin, and nerve conduits using a collagenous scaffold. It also discusses observations, data, and the production procedure for Integra.

http://w3.mit.edu/newsoffice/tt/1996/apr03/41951.html
Provides an introduction to the use of artificial skin.

http://www.integra-ls.com/
This is the Integra home page. It is easily searched for more detailed information about artificial skin.

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Copyright © 2005, Last modified: 8/07/06
Carey S. Reed, Assistant Professor of Chemistry
127C Smith Building, 3000 Ivyside Park, Altoona, PA 16601
Phone: (814) 949-5752; E-mail: csr4@psu.edu