Bernese Mountain Dog

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Swiss Dog Breeds
Origin: 
Switzerland 

Date of Publication of the valid Original Standard: 
March 24, 1993 


St. Bernard


Utilization: 
Companion, watch and farm dog 


Brief historical summary
At the height of the Great St. Bernard Pass, 2469 m (8100 ft.) above sea level, a hospice was founded by monks in the 11th century as a refuge for travelers and pilgrims. Large mountain dogs have been kept there for watch and protection since the middle of the 17th century. The existence of such dogs has been documented in paintings and drawings dating back to 1695 and in written official documents.
These dogs were soon in service as companion dogs for the monks, being especially deployed as rescue dogs for travelers lost in snow and fog. Numerous chronicles, published in many languages, as well as verbal reports by the soldiers of Napoleon who transited the Great Pass with him in 1800, tell of the many lives saved by these dogs in the face of "the White Death". The fame of the St. Bernard then known as the "Barry-dog", spread throughout Europe in the 19th century, and the legendary dog "Barry" became the epitome of the rescue. 
The direct ancestors of the St. Bernard were the large farm dog which were widely spread across the region, within a few generations after the establishment of the ideal type, they were bred into the present day breed. Heinrich Schumacher, from Holligen near Berne, Switzerland, was the first to document and provide pedigrees for his dogs. In February 1884 the "Schweizerische Hundestammbuch" (SHSB), the Swiss Dog Stud Book, was opened. The very first entry was the St. Bernard "Léon", and the following 28 entries were also all St. Bernards. The Swiss St. Bernard Club was founded in Basle on March 15th 1884. During the International Canine Congress of June 2nd 1887, the St. Bernard was officially recognized as a Swiss breed and the breed standard was declared as binding. Since that time the St. Bernard has been a Swiss national dog.
Great Swiss Mountain Dog (Grosser Schweizer Sennenhund) FCI-Standard No 58 

Great Swiss Mountain Dog

Origin: 
Switzerland 

Date of Publication of the valid Original Standard: 
April 9, 1993 

Utilization: 
Originally watch and draught dog; present day also companion, guard and family dog 


Brief historical summary
The ancestors of the Great Swiss Mountain Dog are of the previously widely spread across Central Europe and frequently described as butcher's or slaughterer's dogs. They were strong, tricolour, sometimes black and tan or yellow dogs, popular with butchers, cattle dealers, manual workers and farmers, who used them as guards, droving or draught dogs and bred them as such. 
On the occasion of the jubilee show to mark the 25 years of the founding of the "Schweizerische Kynologische Gesellschaft" (Swiss Kennel Club) SKG, held in 1908, two such dogs, called "short-haired Bernese Mountain Dogs", were for the first time presented toProfessor Albert Heim, for his assesment. 
This great promoter of the "Swiss Mountain and Cattle dogs" recognized in them the old, vanishing, large Sennenhund (mountain dog) or butcher's dog. They were recognised as a definite breed by the SKG and entered as "Grosser Schweizer Sennenhund" in volume 12 (1909) of the Swiss stud book. 
In the canton of Berne, further exemplars were found which measured up to Heim's description and were introduced systematically into pure breeding stock. In January 1912 the club for "Grosse Schweizer Sennenhunde" was founded, which from then on took over the care and promotion of this breed. For a long period the breed remained small as it was particularely difficult to find suitable bitches. Only since 1933 could more than 50 dogs annually be entered into the SHSB (Swiss Stud Book). 
The Standard was first published by the FCI on February 5th, 1939. 
Recognition and wider distribution came along with the breed's growing reputation as undemanding, dependable carrier or draught dogs in the Swiss army during the second World War, so that by 1945 for the first time over 100 puppies could be registered, which was evidence of the existence of about 350-400 dogs. 
Today the breed is bred also in the adjacent countries and is appreciated universally for its calm, even temperament, especially as a family dog.
Appenzell Cattle Dog (Appenzeller Sennenhund) FCI-Standard No 46 

Origin: 
Switzerland 

Date of Publication of the valid Original Standard: 
April 12, 1993 

Utilization: 
Driving, watch, guard, house and farm dog. Today also a versatile working and family dog. 

Brief historical summary

In 1853 an "Appenzeller Sennenhund" was first described as a clearly barking, short haired, medium size, multi-color cattle dog of which can be found in certain regions and is used partly to guard the homestead, partly to herd cattle. In 1989 the Appenzeller was designated a separate breed. The first breed standard was confirmed with the collaboration of the breed's great promoter, head forester Max Si ber and the breed was introduced with eight dogs at the first International Dog Show held in Winterthur. Its purpose was to preserve and promote the breed in its natural state.
The original breeding territory was the Appenzell region. Today the breed is distributed all over Switzerland and beyond its borders and bred in many European countries. The notion Appenzeller is clearly outlined nowadays and the breed, as such, quite distinct from other Swiss Cattle Dogs. Although the Appenzeller has found many admirers, the breeding stock is still very small. It is only by responsible and careful breeding that it will be possible to establish and consolidate its natural and outstanding hereditary qualities. 
Entlebuch Cattle Dog (Entlebucher Sennenhund) FCI-Standard No 47 

Origin: 
Switzerland 

Date of Publication of the valid Original Standard: 
January 31, 1994 

Utilization: 
Driving, watch, guard, house and farm dog. Today also a versatile working and agreeable family dog. 

Brief historical summary

The Entlebucher is the smallest of the four Swiss Cattle Dogs. He originates from Entlebuch, a valley in the district of the Cantons Lucerne and Berne.
On account of the judges' reports, they were entered into the Swiss Canine Stud Book (SHSB) as the fourth Cattle Dog breed. However, the first Standard was only completed in 1927. As the small number of entries into the SHSB (Swiss Stud Book) shows, the breed developed only slowly. 
The Entlebuch Cattle Dog received renewed impetus when, apart from his hereditary qualities as a lively, tireless driving dog, his outstanding suitability as an utility and companion dog was proved. 
Today, still on a modest scale, this attractive tricolored dog has found his admirers and enjoys increased popularity as a family dog.