Instructional Goals and Objectives

Writing Instructional Goals and Objectives

This site will introduce you to instructional goals, the three types of instructional objectives you may need to create to reach your goals, and the best way to write and assess them. Enjoy!

 

Writing Instructional Goals and Objectives

What is a Goal?

Goals are broad, generalized statements about what is to be learned. Think of them as a target to be reached, or "hit."

An arrow approaching a target

 

What is an Objective?

An arrow flying through the air.

 

Are Goals and Objectives Really That Important?

 

An arrow hitting the bullseye of a target.

Thus, stating clear course objectives is important because:

 

Types of Objectives

There are three types of objectives:

Cognitive Objectives

The Complete Compendium of Universal Knowledge book cover. Cognitive objectives are designed to increase an individual's knowledge. Cognitive objectives relate to understandings, awareness, insights (e.g., "Given a description of a planet, the student will be able to identify that planet, as demonstrated verbally or in writing." or "The student will be able to evaluate the different theories of the origin of the solar system as demonstrated by his/her ability to compare and discuss verbally or in writing the strengths and weaknesses of each theory."). This includes knowledge or information recall, comprehension or conceptual understanding, the ability to apply knowledge, the ability to analyze a situation, the ability to synthesize information from a given situation, the ability to evaluate a given situation, and the ability to create something new.

 

 

 

Affective Objectives

Man walking off a cliff. Affective objectives are designed to change an individual's attitude. Affective objectives refer to attitudes, appreciations, and relationships (e.g., "Given the opportunity to work in a team with several people of different races, the student will demonstrate an positive increase in attitude towards non-discrimination of race, as measured by a checklist utilized/completed by non-team members."). 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Psychomotor Objectives

Surgeon operating on a patient. Psychomotor objectives are designed to build a physical skill (e.g., "The student will be able to ride a two-wheel bicycle without assistance and without pause as demonstrated in gym class."); actions that demonstrate the fine motor skills such as use of precision instruments or tools, or actions that evidence gross motor skills such as the use of the body in dance or athletic performance.

 

 

 

 

 

Cognitive Objectives

Cognitive objectives are designed to increase an individual's knowledge. Many refer to Bloom's taxonomy of cognitive objectives, originated by Benjamin Bloom and collaborators in the 1950's.

Examples:

Bloom describes several categories of cognitive learning.

A pryamid showing Blooms taxonomy.

Starting with basic factual knowledge, the categories progress through comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation.

In the 1990's, Lorin Anderson, a former student of Bloom, along with David Krathwohl, one of Boom's original partners, worked to revise the original taxonomy. The Anderson and Krathwohl Taxonomy was published in 2001 in the book "A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing: A Revision of Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives."

Here is a comparison of the original and revised taxonomies:

A comparison of Blooms original and revised taxonomies.

Note that in the revised taxonomy, synthesis and evaluation are switched. Also, verbs are used in place of nouns to imply the action one takes in each level.

Whichever taxonomy you prefer, there are key verbs for each level you can use when writing cognitive objectives.

 

Key Verbs for the Cognitive Domain

Remember

Understand

Apply

Analyze

Evaluate

Create

  • Define
  • Identify
  • List
  • Name
  • Recall
  • Recognize
  • Record
  • Relate
  • Repeat
  • Underline/Circle

 

  • Cite examples of
  • Demonstrate use of
  • Describe
  • Determine
  • Differentiate between
  • Discriminate
  • Discuss
  • Explain
  • Express
  • Give in own words
  • Identify
  • Interpret
  • Locate
  • Pick
  • Report
  • Restate
  • Review
  • Recognize
  • Select
  • Tell
  • Translate
  • Respond
  • Practice
  • Simulates
  • Apply
  • Demonstrate
  • Dramatize
  • Employ
  • Generalize
  • Illustrate
  • Interpret
  • Operate
  • Operationalize
  • Practice
  • Relate
  • Schedule
  • Shop
  • Use
  • Utilize
  • Initiate 
  • Analyze
  • Appraise
  • Calculate
  • Categorize
  • Compare
  • Conclude
  • Contrast
  • Correlate
  • Criticize
  • Deduce
  • Debate
  • Detect
  • Determine
  • Develop
  • Diagram
  • Differentiate
  • Distinguish
  • Draw conclusions
  • Estimate
  • Examine
  • Experiment
  • Identify
  • Infer
  • Inspect
  • Inventory
  • Predict
  • Relate
  • Solve
  • Test
  • Diagnose

 

 

  • Appraise
  • Assess
  • Choose
  • Compare
  • Critique
  • Estimate
  • Evaluate
  • Judge
  • Measure
  • Rate
  • Score
  • Select
  • Validate
  • Value
  • Test

 

  • Arrange
  • Assemble
  • Collect
  • Compose
  • Construct
  • Create
  • Design
  • Develop
  • Formulate
  • Manage
  • Modify
  • Organize
  • Plan
  • Prepare
  • Produce
  • Propose
  • Predict
  • Reconstruct
  • Set-up
  • Synthesize
  • Systematize
  • Devise 

 

Example of Questions for Each Level

Remember

 

Understand

 

Apply

 

Analyze

 

Evaluate

 

Create

 

Additional Links

Offline References

Anderson, L.W., & Krathwohl (Eds.). (2001). A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing: A Revision of Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. New York: Longman.

Bloom, B.S. and Krathwohl, D. R. (1956). Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: The Classification of Educational Goals, by a committee of college and university examiners. Handbook I: Cognitive Domain. NY, NY: Longmans, Green.

 

 

Affective Objectives

 Affective objectives are designed to change an individual's attitude, choices, and relationships.

 

Example:

Krathwohl and Bloom created a taxonomy for the affective domain that lists levels of commitment (indicating affect) from lowest to highest.

The affective domain pyramid, showing the hierarchy of the levels of commitment.

 

The levels are described as follows:

Affective Domain Hierarchy

Level

Definition

Example

Receiving

Being aware of or attending to something in the environment.

Individual reads a book passage about civil rights.

Responding

Showing some new behaviors as a result of experience.

Individual answers questions about the book, reads another book by the same author, another book about civil rights, etc.

Valuing

Showing some definite involvement or commitment.

The individual demonstrates this by voluntarily attending a lecture on civil rights.

Organization

Integrating a new value into one's general set of values, giving it some ranking among one's general priorities.

The individual arranges a civil rights rally.

Characterization by Value

Acting consistently with the new value.

The individual is firmly committed to the value, perhaps becoming a civil rights leader.

 

Here are key verbs for each level you can use when writing affective objectives:

Key Verbs for the Affective Domain

Receiving

Responding

Valuing

Organization

Characterization

  • accept
  • attend
  • develop
  • recognize

 

  • complete
  • comply
  • cooperate
  • discuss
  • examine
  • obey
  • respond

 

  • accept
  • defend
  • devote
  • pursue
  • seek

 

  • codify
  • discriminate
  • display
  • order
  • organize
  • systematize
  • weigh

 

  • internalize
  • verify

 

 

Additional Links

Behavioral Objectives - Affective Domain

Krathwohl's Taxonomy

 

References

Krathwohl, D.R., Bloom,B.S. and  Masia, B. B. (1964).Taxonomy of educational objectives, Book II. Affective domain. New York, NY. David McKay Company, Inc.

 

 

Psychomotor Objectives

 

 

A surgeon operating on a patient.

 

 

 

 

This domain is characterized by progressive levels of behaviors from observation to mastery of a physical skill. Several different taxonomies exist.

 

 

 

Simpson (1972) built this taxonomy on the work of Bloom and others:

Dave (1970) developed this taxonomy:

Harrow (1972) developed this taxonomy. It is organized according to the degree of coordination including involuntary responses and learned capabilities:

The following list is a synthesis of the above taxonomies:

Psychomotor Domain Hierarchy

Level

Definition

Example

Observing

Active mental attending of a physical event.

The learner watches a more experienced person. Other mental activity, such as reading may be a pert of the observation process.

Imitating

Attempted copying of a physical behavior.

The first steps in learning a skill. The learner is observed and given direction and feedback on performance. Movement is not automatic or smooth.

Practicing

Trying a specific physical activity over and over.

The skill is repeated over and over. The entire sequence is performed repeatedly. Movement is moving towards becoming automatic and smooth.

Adapting

Fine tuning. Making minor adjustments in the physical activity in order to perfect it.

The skill is perfected. A mentor or a coach is often needed to provide an outside perspective on how to improve or adjust as needed for the situation.

 

Here are key verbs for each level you can use when writing psychomotor objectives:

Key Verbs for the Psychomotor Domain
  • bend
  • calibrates
  • constructs
  • differentiate (by touch)
  • dismantles
  • displays
  • fastens
  • fixes
  • grasp
  • grinds
  • handle
  • heats
  • manipulates
  • measures
  • mends
  • mixes
  • operate
  • organizes
  • perform (skillfully)
  • reach
  • relax
  • shorten
  • sketches
  • stretch
  • write

 

 

Additional Links

Behavioral Objectives - Psychomotor Domain

Simpson's Psychomotor Domain

Offline References

Dave, R.H., in R. J. Armstrong et al., Developing and Writing Behavioral Objectives (Tucson, AZ:  Educational Innovators Press, 1970).

Harrow, A.J. (1972). A taxonomy of the psychomotor domain. New York: David McKay Co.

Simpson, E. (1972). The classification of educational objectives in the psychomotor domain: The psychomotor domain. Vol. 3. Washington, DC: Gryphon House.

 

How To Write Instructional Objectives

 

Instructional objectives should specify four main things:

This is often called the ABCD's of objectives, a nice mnemonic aid!

Tip: Never use the word understand in an objective. It is too vague, and does not specify a measurable behavior.

 

Be SMART

Instructional objectives should be SMART:

 

Specific - Use the ABCDs to create a clear and concise objective.

Measurable - Write the objective so that anyone can observe the learner perform desired action and objectively assess the performance.

Achievable - Make sure the learner can do what is required. Don't, for example, ask the learner to perform complex actions if they are a beginner in an area.

Relevant - Demonstrate value to the learner. Don't teach material that won't be used or on which you will not assess.

Timely and Time Bound - Ensure the performance will be used soon, not a year from now. Also, include any necessary time constraints, such as completing a task in "10 minutes or less."

 

Examples of Well-written Objectives

Below are some example objectives which include Audience (A), Behavior (B), Condition (C), and Degree of Mastery (D). Note that many objectives actually put the condition first.

Audience - Green
Behavior - Red
Condition - Blue
Degree - Pink

Psychomotor - "Given a standard balance beam raised to a standard height, the student (attired in standard balance beam usage attire) will be able to walk the entire length of the balance beam (from one end to the other) steadily, without falling off, and within a six second time span."

Cognitive (comprehension level) - "Given examples and non-examples of constructivist activities in a college classroom, the student will be able to accurately identify the constructivist examples and explain why each example is or isn't a constructivist activity in 20 words or less."

Cognitive (application level) - "Given a sentence written in the past or present tense, the student will be able to re-write the sentence in future tense with no errors in tense or tense contradiction (i.e., I will see her yesterday.)."

Cognitive (creation/synthesis level) - "Given two cartoon characters of the student's choice, the student will be able to list five major personality traits of each of the two characters, combine these traits (either by melding traits together, multiplying together complimentary traits, or negating opposing traits) into a composite character, and develop a short (no more than 20 frames) storyboard for a cartoon that illustrates three to five of the major personality traits of the composite character."

Affective - "Given the opportunity to work in a team with several people of different races, the student will demonstrate a positive increase in attitude towards non-discrimination of race, as measured by a checklist utilized/completed by non-team members."

When reviewing example objectives above, you may notice a few things.

As you move up the "cognitive ladder," it can be increasingly difficult to precisely specify the degree of mastery required.

Affective objectives are difficult for many instructors to write and assess. They deal almost exclusively with internal feelings and conditions that can be difficult to observe externally.

It's important to choose the correct key verbs to express the desired behavior you want students to produce. See the pages on cognitive objectives, affective objectives, and psychomotor objectives to see examples of key words for each level.

 

Typical Problems Encountered When Writing Objectives

Problems in Writing Objectives

Problem

Error Type

Solution

Too vast/complex

The objective is too broad in scope or is actually more than one objective.

Simplify/break apart.

False/missing behavior, condition, or degree

The objective does not list the correct behavior, condition, and/or degree, or they are missing.

Be more specific, make sure the behavior, condition, and degree is included.

Only topics listed

Describes instruction, not conditions. That is, the instructor may list the topic but not how he or she expects the students to use the information

Simplify, include ONLY ABCDs.

False performance

No true overt, observable performance listed.

Describe what behavior you must observe.

 

Self Check

How well do you understand the basics of writing good instructional objectives? Try this self test and you'll find out!

 

 Toggle open/close quiz group

Additional Links

A Quick Guide to Writing Learning Objectives

 

 

Assessment and Instructional Objectives

Assessment and instructional objectives are ideally closely bound. A well-written objective should clearly illustrate the most important criteria for assessing if the individual has accomplished the objective.

This section illustrates how a well-written objective assists one in developing valid assessment instruments. Psychomotor, affective, and cognitive types of objective are illustrated here.

Psychomotor Performance Target

Goal

Walk the length of a balance beam.

Objective Derived From Goal

Given a standard balance beam raised to a standard height, the student (attired in standard balance beam usage attire) will be able to walk the entire length of the balance beam (from one end to the other) steadily, without falling off, and within a six second time span.

Purpose of Assessment

To partially determine placement on a high school gymnastics team. Other assessments using other gymnastic devices will be used in conjunction with this assessment to determine the final ranking/placement. The criterion for acceptable performance is thus irrelevant here; higher scoring individuals simply have a better chance of being selected for the team.

Possible Biases

As males do not use the balance beam in gymnastics, this assessment is for females only. Thus, some may consider this test gender biased; but the rules of gymnastics dictate this distinction is necessary. Testing male's performance on equipment they will not use is irrelevant.

This test is biased against people who are physically incapable of mounting a balance beam and/or walking. However, these people would be incapable of performing on a gymnastics team and thus would not attempt the assessment in the first place.

 

Assessment Procedure

Pretest

Not needed. This is a sorting type of assessment and is designed to rank individuals, not chart their improvement and/or change in behavior.

Sole Test

The student (attired in standard balance beam usage attire) must walk the entire length of a standard balance beam raised to a standard height steadily, without falling off, and within a six second time span. (Note how this part reflects the objective.) A team of no less than three judges will observe a given individual perform this task three times, using a given scoring rubric to assign a score for each trial. The trial score for each trial is the average of all the judge's scores. The overall score for the individual is the average of the three trial scores.

Rubrics for Assessment

5 - Walks the balance beam flawlessly. Does not need to check balance, does not pause. Completes the walk within six seconds.

4 - Walks the beam, but is somewhat unsteady. Completes the walk within six seconds.

3 - Walks the beam, but is somewhat unsteady. May pause one or more times. Takes more than six seconds to complete the walk.

2 - Walks the beam, but is very unsteady, almost falling off, may pause one or more times, and/or takes more than six seconds.

1 - Falls off the beam before completing the walk.

0 - Falls off the beam immediately.

Conditions of Assessment

Validity Defense

Reliability Assessment

Assessment Package for Judges of the Balance Beam Exercise

Directions: Each individual must walk the balance beam. For each individual, use the following scale to assign a value to the individual's performance on the balance beam. Each individual will be given three trials or chances to walk the balance beam. Score each trial individually. After scoring each trial, hold up the numbered card in front of you that corresponds to the score you gave the individual for that trial. Your score will be averaged with the other judge's scores. Note that you must time the individuals; a maximum time of six seconds to walk the beam from one end to the other is permitted.

Scale

5 - Walks the balance beam flawlessly. Does not need to check balance, does not pause. Completes the walk within six seconds.

4 - Walks the beam, but is somewhat unsteady. Completes the walk within six seconds.

3 - Walks the beam, but is somewhat unsteady. May pause one or more times. Takes more than six seconds to complete the walk.

2 - Walks the beam, but is very unsteady, almost falling off, may pause one or more times, and/or takes more than six seconds.

1 - Falls off the beam before completing the walk.

0 - Falls off the beam immediately.

Conditions of Assessment

Scoring Template for an Individual

Balance Beam Rubric

Judge 1

Judge 2

Judge 3

Trial Total (Sum of Judge's scores)

Trial Score (Trial Total/# of Judges)

Trial 1

 

 

 

 

 

Trial 2

 

 

 

 

 

Trial 3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Overall Score (Sum of Trial Scores/# of Trials) =

 

 


Affective Learning Target

Goal - Learner's perspective on civil rights will improve.

Objectives Derived From Goal

  1. Given the opportunity to work in a team with several people of different races, the student will demonstrate a positive increase in attitude towards non-discrimination of race, as measured by a checklist utilized/completed by non-team members.
  2. Given the opportunity to choose/not choose to do so, the student will demonstrate a positive increase in attitude towards non-discrimination of race, as demonstrated by choosing to participate (at varying levels of responsibility) in the organization of a racial equality rally.
  3. Given the opportunity to rank non-discrimination of race in relationship to other issues, the student will demonstrate a positive increase in attitude towards non-discrimination of race, as demonstrated by ranking non-discrimination of race as more important than other issues.

Purpose of Assessment

To determine if an individual's attitude towards racial equality has improved. If the student's score increases at all on the posttest, they are considered successful.

Possible Biases

Assessment Procedure - Objective 1

Objective 1 Pretest

The student being assessed would be part of a racially diverse group. The provided rubric would be employed by the instructor or by someone not actually participating in the group. To have a group member or members employ the rubric as a pretest device would invalidate it, for the individual's actions and mannerisms would change upon introduction of the rubric. This could interfere with or augment the instruction that would follow.

Objective 1 Posttest

The student being assessed would be part of a racially diverse group. The provided rubric would be employed by the instructor or by someone not actually participating in the group. Ideally, this assessor should be the same person who administered the pretest. To have a group member or members employ the rubric as a posttest device would invalidate it, for the individual's actions and mannerisms would change upon introduction of the rubric. Ideally, each student should be assessed at least two times with different groups.

Comparisons between pretest and posttest scores would be used to determine if a positive increase in attitude towards non-discrimination of race has occurred.

Rubrics/Scoresheets for Assessment

Directions: For each individual, use the following scale to assign a value to the individual's performance on each item listed in the left column. Place an X in the most appropriate square to the right of each item. Example: If you decide a student only rarely attended individuals with the same amount of interest, place an X in the box under the 2. Twenty-eight possible points. Observe each student for 10 minutes.

 

Affective Objective 1 Rubric

Student Name:

 

4

Most (90-100%) of the time

3

Usually (60 - 89%) of the time

2

Somewhat (30 - 59%) of the time

1

Rarely (0 - 29%) of the time

 

 

 

 

 

Student attends to each individual with the same amount of interest.

 

 

 

 

Student uses the same respectful tone of voice when addressing each team member.

 

 

 

 

Student does not make culturally sensitive or degrading remarks. (Example: "You Brugians are always thinking about yourselves.")

 

 

 

 

When a disagreement occurs, the student addresses the disagreement and not the other team member(s). (Example: "I don't believe that is true because..." NOT "Maybe where you come from that's true, but...")

 

 

 

 

Student generally maintains the same body language and facial expressions for all other team members. (Example: The student frowns at Xavier all the time, but smiles at Jessica all the time.)

 

 

 

 

Student maintains same level of eye contact with all other group members.

 

 

 

 

Conditions of Assessment

Validity Defense

Reliability Assessment

Assessment Procedure - Objective 2

Pretest

Via a paper handout, students would be asked to volunteer to work on developing a rally for racial equality. Students would return the handout having checked how they would like to (or not to) participate in the rally. The provided scoresheet would be employed by the instructor to assign a pretest score to each student.

Posttest (After instruction)

Via a paper handout, students would be asked to volunteer to work on developing a rally for racial equality. Students would return the handout having checked how they would like to (or not to) participate in the rally. The provided scoresheet would be employed by the instructor to assign a posttest score to each student.

Comparisons between pretest and posttest scores would be used to determine if a positive increase in attitude towards non-discrimination of race has occurred.

Scoresheet

Assign each individual a numeric score based on his/her indicated level of involvement on the completed handout.

5 - Master organizer of entire rally.
4 - Organize a specific part of the rally.
3 - Assistant for two or more organizers of a specific part of the rally.
2 - Assistant for one organizer of a specific part of the rally.
1 - Minimal involvement (i.e., man refreshment stand night of the rally).
0 - No involvement.

Conditions of Assessment

Validity Defense

Reliability Assessment

Assessment Procedure - Objective 3

Pretest

Via a pencil and paper quiz, students would be asked to rank the relative importance of non-discrimination of race as compared to other social issues.

Posttest (After instruction)

Via a pencil and paper quiz, students would be asked to rank the relative importance of non-discrimination of race as compared to other social issues.

Comparisons between pretest and posttest rankings would be used to determine if a positive increase in attitude towards non-discrimination of race has occurred.

Sample Quiz

  1. You are the mayor of a large city. You have a budget surplus. Please rank the following programs in order of importance. The higher-ranking items will receive more money for programs that support them, and thus will be more successful.
    __ Additional Policemen
    __ Racial Equality Programs
    __ Spouse Abuse Shelters
    __ Pollution Control Programs
  2. You are the new superintendent in an inter-racial school. Several gangs exist, and there is graffiti everywhere. Teachers are afraid of some of the students. No type of security measures are in place at this time. You have a plan to change things, but you need to decide what to do first, second, etc. Please rank the following programs in order of importance.
    __ Racial Tolerance Programs
    __ Gang Control
    __ Graffiti Cleanup
    __ Security Program
  3. You are the social director in a small, rural town in mid-western United States. The population of your town was 100% white until this week. A Mexican family of 10 just moved into town. Rumor has it that the father of the family has no job at this time. The mother creates and sells crafts out of her house. The 8 children's ages span between 1 and 15. As social director, what do you think you should do? Please rank the following ideas in order of importance.
    __ Advertise Available Jobs Throughout Town
    __ Host an Open House for the Mother's Crafts
    __ Mexican Culture Awareness Social
    __ Do Nothing Unless Asked By Someone
  4. You are in an airplane with your classmates, a group of Indians, and a group of Eskimos. The plane crashes in the water, but fortunately many of you survive. The plane is sinking. You are one of the least injured people. Each group is huddled near an exit, and will be equally easy (or difficult) to rescue. Some of the less injured will probably be able to rescue themselves, but you are not sure. You have to decide who to rescue first, second, and so on. You doubt you have time to rescue everyone before the plane sinks completely. Please rank the following groups in the order you would save them.
    __ Your classmates
    __ The most injured
    __ The Indians
    __ The Eskimos
    __ The least injured
    __ Obviously dead bodies
  5. You are in charge of a private golf club. It was open only to white people with low handicaps (10 or less). Recently, the clubhouse burnt down, and many of the members have left for other clubs. You have to rebuild the physical site, and also build up the number of members. Please rank the following decisions in order of importance.
    __ Raise membership fees to help pay for the new clubhouse.
    __ Open the club membership to anyone who can pay the membership fee.
    __ Place a handicap limit on perspective members. Those people with a handicap greater than 20 cannot join the club.
    __ Build a cheap, temporary clubhouse for use until the new clubhouse can be built.

Scoring

  1. Item to examine for positive change is "Racial Equality Programs."
  2. Item to examine for positive change is "Racial Tolerance Programs."
  3. Item to examine for positive change is "Mexican Culture Awareness Social."
  4. Items to examine for positive change are "Most Injured" and "Least Injured."
  5. Item to examine for positive change is "Open the club membership to anyone who can pay the membership fee."

Conditions of Assessment

Validity Defense

Reliability Assessment

 


Cognitive Learning Target: Problem Solving/Synthesis Level

Goal - Students will be able to create a cast (using cartoon characters, modern entertainers, etc.) which reflect the personalities of the characters in a piece of literature, and explain why they have chosen the particular cast members. (The cast would be those characters, cartoon figures, entertainers, etc. that they choose to play the role of each character in an upcoming TV show, movie, play, etc.)

Objective

Given two cartoon characters of the student's choice, the student will be able to list five major personality traits of each of the two characters, combine these traits (either by melding traits together, multiplying together complimentary traits, or negating opposing traits) into a composite character, and develop a short (no more than 20 frames) storyboard for a cartoon that illustrates three to five of the major personality traits of the composite character.

Purpose of Assessment

To determine if a student in a high school setting can construct a composite character based on the personality traits of two given characters, can depict the composite character's personality, and can logically defend the composite character's personality and actions. This is a pass/fail assignment. Student receiving a score of 26 or more on the provided rubric have passed this test.

Possible Biases

Some students may not be familiar with certain cartoon characters, due to cultural differences, or simply because of lack of exposure to the cartoon genre. In these cases, the instructor may want to assist the student in choosing two characters (cartoon or otherwise, fictional or non-fictional) the student is familiar with, so the student can complete the assignment without negative bias.

Assessment Procedure

The student will list five major personality traits of each of the two characters. These are perceived traits, and are not judged by the instructor as to their correctness. The student must then combine the traits of the two characters in a logical, defensible manner. Each new trait must be defended by the student either verbally or in writing. The following three examples illustrate this:

  1. Melding traits - Garfield loves lasagna. Green Lantern receives his power from a green lantern. His power is focused through a ring he wears. The ring must be recharged by the lantern every 24 hours. In the composite character, it may be necessary to recharge the Ring of Pasta with the Lasagna of Power every 24 hours.
  2. Multiplying together complimentary traits - If you have two characters that both fight for justice, the composite character would fight for justice as well, perhaps at a level some would consider fanatical.
  3. Negating opposing traits - If one character is good and the other evil, the composite character would be neutral. Thus he/she/it might respond to a bank robbery not because it is the right thing to do, or to share in the loot, but perhaps to collect a reward.

Then the student would develop short (no more than 20 frames) storyboard for a cartoon that illustrates three to five of the major personality traits of the composite character. The storyboard could be plain text (one paragraph would comprise a frame), rough sketches (one sketch per frame), colored drawings (one drawing per frame), or any combination thereof.

The instructor(s) would assess the storyboard by examining the listing of original personality traits and their combinations into a new composite character. The storyboard must reflect at least three of the composite traits in a story that fits the composite character. If the student offers a verbal defense, the instructor(s) must listen to this defense. If the defense is in writing, the instructor(s) must consult it at this time. The instructor(s) must use the provided rubric to assign a score to the student. Students must complete this assessment in two hours.

Conditions of Assessment

Validity Defense

Reliability Assessment

Assessment Procedure

Read the following to the students. Also, have this available in print form:

A. Choose two cartoon characters. List five major personality traits of each of the two characters. Combine these traits (either by melding traits together, multiplying together complimentary traits, or negating opposing traits) into a composite character, and develop a short (no more than 20 frames) storyboard for a cartoon that illustrates three to five of the major personality traits of the composite character. Melding traits together, multiplying together complimentary traits, and negating opposing traits are defined in this way:

 

  1. Melding traits - Garfield loves lasagna. Green Lantern receives his power from a green lantern. His power is focused through a ring he wears. The ring must be recharged by the lantern every 24 hours. In the composite character, it may be necessary to recharge the Ring of Pasta with the Lasagna of Power every 24 hours.
  2. Multiplying together complimentary traits - If you have two characters that both fight for justice, the composite character would fight for justice as well, perhaps at a level some would consider fanatical.
  3. Negating opposing traits - If one character is good and the other evil, the composite character would be neutral. Thus he/she/it might respond to a bank robbery not because it is the right thing to do, or to share in the loot, but perhaps to collect a reward.

B. After you have your combined traits list, develop short (no more than 20 frames) storyboard for a cartoon that illustrates three to five of the major personality traits of your composite character. The storyboard can be plain text (one paragraph would comprise a frame), rough sketches (one sketch per frame), colored drawings (one drawing per frame), or any combination thereof. (Show examples). You will be evaluated on how logical your combined traits are, how well you can explain/defend these traits, and how well your storyboard utilizes and illustrates those combined traits. This is a pass/fail test. You must score at least 26 out of 36 possible points to pass. (Explain rubric). You have two hours to complete this task.

Assessment Package for Judges of the Cartoon Melding Assessment

Directions: For each individual, use the following scale to assign a value to the individual's performance on each item listed in the left column. Place an X in the most appropriate square to the right of each item. 36 possible points. This is a pass/fail test. Students receiving a score of 26 or better have passed this test.

Rubric for Creation/Synthesis Cognitive Level

 

Name of Student:

 

3 - Excellent. The combination of traits is logical.

 

2 - Fair. The combination of traits is somewhat logical, but other interpretations are more so.

 

1 - Poor. The combination of traits is not logical.

 

Student combo of Traits 1

 

 

 

 

Student combo of Traits 2

 

 

 

 

Student combo of Traits 3

 

 

 

 

Student combo of Traits 4

 

 

 

 

Student combo of Traits 5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3 - The student’s defense of the combination is flawless.

 

2 - The student’s defense of the combination is adequate, but open to argument.

 

1 - The student’s defense of the combination is weak.

 

Student combo of Traits 1

 

 

 

 

Student combo of Traits 2

 

 

 

 

Student combo of Traits 3

 

 

 

 

Student combo of Traits 4

 

 

 

 

Student combo of Traits 5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3 - Excellent. The student used at least three of the combined traits in the storyboard.

 

2 - Fair. The student used one or two of he combined traits in the storyboard.

 

1 - Poor. The student used at most one of the combined traits in the storyboard.

 

Storyboard construction

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3 - The story fits the composite character - i.e., it is believable for that character.

 

2 - The story fits the composite character but is somewhat artificial or contrived.

 

1 - Poor. The student used at most one of the combined traits in the storyboard. The story does not fit the composite character and is somewhat artificial or contrived.

 

Storyboard coherence

 

 

 

 

 

Total Score:

 

 

 

Activities and Instructional Objectives

 

Dwyer, 1991 – "If your final objective is to have learners engage in problem-solving,you inspect the instructional unit to make sure that the content contains the appropriate facts, concepts, rules/principles, etc. which are a prerequisite for that intended learners to engage in successful problem-solving."

Activities can include writing papers, doing projects, solving problems, discussing issues, etc. Activities should flow naturally from your objectives. Here are some questions to ask yourself:

You want to select student activities based on the level of the objectives. Following are some examples of student activities related to different levels of cognitive learning.

Matching Objectives With Activities

Level of Learning

Student Activities

Facts

Self-check quizzes, trivia games, etc.

Concepts

Have students show examples/non-examples, student generated flowchart, etc.

Rules/Principles

Design projects and prototypes, simulations, etc.

Problem Solving

Case study, small group discussion, critical thinking, teamwork, etc.

 

Additional Links

How to Write Learning Objectives that Meet Demanding Behavioral Criteria

TEDI Learning Activities

UMUC Teaching and Learning Activities

EKU TLC Teaching Tips

Michigan State on Objectives and Assessment

Offline References

Dwyer, F. M.(1991). A paradigm for generating curriculum design oriented research questions in distance education. Second American Symposium Research in Distance Education, University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University.

Heinrich, R., Molenda, M., Russell, J.D., Smaldino, S.E. (1996). Instructional Media and Technologies for Learning. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Merrill.

 

Aligning Instructional Objectives, Activities, and Assessment

A well-written objective will assist you in aligning the objective to activities and assessment.

The graphic below (Adapted from Dwyer 1991) shows a mismatch of the objectives, instruction and assessment. In this case:

Because of this students who have not been exposed to problem-solving techniques related to the course will more than likely have low-achievement when working on problem-solving assignments or problem-solving questions on an exam.

A chart showing a mismatch between objective, instruction, and assessment levels.

In contrast, the graphic below (Adapted from Dwyer) shows one example of matching your objectives with instruction.

A chart showing a match between objective, instruction, and assessment levels.

Offline References

Dwyer, F. M.(1991). A paradigm for generating curriculum design oriented research questions in distance education. Second American Symposium Research in Distance Education, University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University.

Heinrich, R., Molenda, M., Russell, J.D., Smaldino, S.E. (1996). Instructional Media and Technologies for Learning. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Merrill.